The Parliamentary system, also known as the parliamentary system, is a mechanism in which the choice of government (executive) emanating from the parliament (legislature) and is responsible before it. This is known as the principle of political trust, in sense that the legislative and executive powers are closely linked (Illinois congress candidate 2014). Depending on the executive of confidence of parliament to survive. In parliamentary systems the head of state is different than the mayor.
At that time, the British Parliament took to himself the powers of state for a short time, until Cromwell instituted the dictatorship in 1649. However, this first breakthrough of model is already showing its main features. First, Parliament was a popular assembly elected by the citizens equal and enjoyed all the powers of state, without violating their autonomy possible.
A key indication of this is in addition to absence of judiciary, the national legal requirement of a community order instead of a self-imposed constitution. The members of institutions do not enjoy for MPs from parliaments constitutionally guaranteed protection of immunity and indemnity. The decisions of organs may also be removed or replaced by the municipal supervision.
The Romans exported the system to provincial senatorial colonies where senates served as municipal bodies responsible for the management of cities with one. With the fall of Western Roman Empire, some of cities of Latin influence of Italian peninsula maintained municipal councils, which would lead to executive bodies of emerging Italian city state.
The third precedent and perhaps the most significant was the Court system derived complex Aragon, united in 1247 in General Privileges of Aragon, which will be renovated to its final version in 1592. This picked the call of Courts, in Aragon and the sole known case, they came to have four arms, one more than the usual three, which were represented the most important cities of kingdom, besides nobles, clergy and knights.
The scheme density of municipal regulations is higher, but this was traditionally determined. Above all, there is also at the local level constitutions, namely in form of main statutes, which must give each community in each State to regulate its fundamental order. Finally, the existence of municipal supervision is not a reason for exclusion. As a federal state, the US practice at national level their legislative power by Congress (ie the parliament of United States) and at sub-national level by the parliaments of individual federal states (State Legislature).
In this context, it is sometimes referred to as the first history of parliamentarianism in Western Europe in courts of Kingdom of Leon in 1188, since inm the power of monarch was subject to decisions of an Assembly of Notables composed of clergy, nobles and city representatives. The power of medieval parliaments depended heavily on the monarch’s own influence.
The installation on the throne of House of Hanover initialed parliamentarism in England, to delegate all their theoretical Hanoverian monarchs power in parliament. In Europe it will have to wait until the French Revolution for a model like parliamentary-democratic representation, which is inextricably linked to division of powers made by Montesquieu is glimpsed.
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